Do you know that our fantastic earth has outer worlds secrets? Even though some scientists don’t know that there might have more layers on earth. According to research, there can be a hidden layer inside the solid inner core of the planet. The nature of this layer is still mysterious. However, it can have something to do with the structural changes of iron under extreme pressure and temperature.
The study shows that the inner core has more complexity than before.
The complex core
The core of the earth has two parts. The liquid outer core starts around 1,800 miles from the earth’s surface and is made of liquid metals at temperatures of 4000 to 9000 degrees Fahrenheit. The below surface of the earth has about 3,200 miles wherein the core transitions to solid iron.
Earth’s secret hidden layer
As we mentioned earlier, a study revealed that there’s a hidden layer in the earth’s solid inner core. The planet’s inner core is made up of solid nickel and iron and is about two-thirds the moon’s size.
Machine learning was used by the researchers to pinpoint an exact model of the unusual physical processes which shape the earth’s inner core. For about decades, many scientists suspected that there could be an extra hidden layer in the earth’s solid nickel and iron inner core.
A recent study revealed strong evidence for the mysterious layer. This study appeared in the Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth. The study is considered to help revise earth science textbooks. In addition, it can also reshape how people understand what lies below their feet.
Researchers study inner core properties to answer questions on how the protective magnetic field of our planet was formed and how it can affect the future.
According to study author Jo Stephenson, a Ph.D. student in geophysics at Australian National University in Canberra, “ That’s what protects us from solar winds that would basically cause life not to exist as we know it today.” “That means the inner core is actually really important for life.”
How do scientists investigate the layers below the earth’s surface?
We can’t deny that investigating the earth below the surface can be a difficult task. With this, scientists use seismic waves signals, laboratory experiments on super-heated, pressurized rocks and computed models which tie all the data together.
Scientists make the analysis of the seismic readings to determine what does the things below the earth’s surface look like. Seismic shock waves were sent out if earthquakes ruptured, traveling at various velocities through the earth’s layers. They speed up or slow down according to the material composition they travel through and the direction they travel.
Anisotropy is the study about how the waves travel through the earth, which could shed light on how the buried material flows.
In her recent study, Stephenson, together with her team, gathered a dataset of around 100,000 deep earthquakes with about magnitude of four and seven with depths greater than 62 miles beneath the surface, wherein the waves zipped in the planet’s inner core.
The scientists used an algorithm that sorted through thousands of waves traveling the inner core to find the most exact model that can explain the previous research’s reported anomalies. In the inner core’s upper part, seismic waves move in the north-south direction faster compared to waves that move parallel to the equator.
The continuous mystery
The earth’s core remains a mystery. There are still many important facts about the planet’s inner core, including how old it is and more. With this, scientists encounter a scarcity of seismic data from different parts of the earth.
Stephenson stated, there’s a higher chance that there are various changes in the core of the Earth, and it is just one way that we’re can see with the data.
Another method to gather what occurs beneath the surface is the recreation of the conditions discovered at depth in a lab above ground. Meanwhile, mineral physicists squeeze and heat up the rocks to intense pressures and temperatures to learn about the buried rock’s properties.
Studying the inner core of the earth and its inner-inner core allows scientists to learn about the earth’s magnetic field formation generated in the molten outer core of our planet. In the division between the outer and inner core known as the Bullen discontinuity, there are bits of nickel and liquid iron from the outer core that combines with the inner core’s material and start to rise.
William said, that the light material is floaty and is likely to be a main driver of circulation within planet’s liquid outer core. The planet’s roiling metallic liquid outer core circulation is what generates the earth’s magnetic field.
The planet’s magnetic field is critical for all life. It protects us against dangerous cosmic and solar radiation.
The mystery of earth’s water
About 4.5 billion years ago, scientists thought that the earth was a dry rock. So, where did the vital chemical h2O came from? With icy asteroids, the planet could be refill its water reservoirs during the period of the Late Heavy Bombardment. However, the earth’s water is shrouded in mystery since little rock evidence remains during this period.
Other mysteries in the earth include how the moon got here, where life came from, where the oxygen came from, and more.
Earth’s carbon hidden in the core
Carbon is vital for life since it has a big role in different geologic processes on earth. The carbon on earth is still a mystery since it remains inaccessible in the depth of the planet. The core of the earth is mostly nickel and iron, but its density shows the presence of lighter elements like silicon, carbon, sulfur, oxygen or hydrogen.
To sum it up, outer worlds inside of the earth play a crucial part in humanity. It is essential for people’s lives in the future. Like what we mentioned earlier, there’s a hidden secret in the inner core of the earth. Studies are still ongoing about the inner layers of the earth. Aside from the inner core, there are various earth mysteries.