Cobalt Crater THE COBALT CRATER DISCOVERY The discovery illustrates a 35-year time-lapse, Google Earth flyover of a large impact crater isolating the alloying processes in a defined, remote non-human natural setting. In this sequence, the viewer can visualize the electrical and physical material change developing over time in the crater. Displayed are the awesome science and technologies evident including sintering, powdering metallurgy, capacitor banks, electro slag welding, and the mechanical annealing to rolling. The perfection and beauty of the large Cobalt blue metal superalloy rods and other metals like Nickel bursting into brilliant glowing plasma rockets are stunning discovery highlights. Gravity, magnetics, Eddy currents, induction energy have been working for hundreds of millions of years from this species own impact crater event at least 540M years ago. Google Earth captures the physical manifestation of the alloy matrix boundary. This is seen everywhere on the globe because it’s a real-world science result. The visualization of the physical material changes as the superalloy develops within the crater as the species takes hold. Around the rim are the induction cells and Eddy currents. This is a process to harness energy for the entire crater with the electroslag welding base metal develops and transforms crater surface over time. Chemical energy, electromagnetics, pressure, and time is the most effective formula when no external furnace (smelting) sources are available. Sintering, powder metallurgy, and electro slag welding are chemical processes exhibited in form and color as time marches forward. The white layer in one slide could be aluminum oxide although it’s thin <.5 cm it’s applied to create the reactive chemical melting point and precise grain boundary for the single-phase superalloy. The atoms in the materials diffuse across the boundaries of the particles, fusing the particles together and creating one solid piece. Because the sintering temperature does not have to reach the melting point of the material, sintering is often chosen as the shaping process for materials with extremely high melting points such as tungsten and molybdenum. A final heat treatment stage helps remove existing internal stresses produced during any cold compaction. This product is a custom superalloy made for high heat turbine blades and aerospace components. Multicolored cylinders are energizing capacity sintering discharge (CDS) banks of alien alloys of Cobalt, Tungsten, Carbide, Chromium, Nickel, and Copper. This method creates the purest metal-solvent for the most powerful energy reactions. Most significantly is the acceleration of the rocket build over the last 20 years. The next phase is to identify the superalloy formulas made for the specific rocket function so we can reverse engineer the billion-year blueprint for space travel. Cobalt Alloy – Cobalt-based alloys are also corrosion and wear-resistant, making them, like titanium. Alloys with chromium and tungsten carbides are very hard and wear-resistant. The element has a medium abundance, but natural compounds of cobalt are numerous and small amounts of cobalt compounds are found in most rocks, soils, plants, and animals.  It is primarily used in lithium-ion batteries, and in the manufacture of magnetic, wear-resistant and high-strength alloys. The compounds cobalt silicate and cobalt (II) aluminate (CoAl2O4, cobalt blue) give a distinctive deep blue color to glass, ceramics, inks, paints and varnishes. The temperature stability of these alloys makes them suitable for turbine blades for gas turbines and aircraft jet engines, although nickel-based single-crystal alloys surpass them in performance. Special cobalt – chromium – molybdenum alloys like others are used for high-speed steels containing cobalt for increased heat and wear resistance. The special alloys of aluminum, nickel, cobalt, and iron, known as Alnico, and of samarium and cobalt (samarium-cobalt magnet) are used in permanent magnets. Scientific Methods 
  • Sintering, Powder Metallurgy, is the forming a solid mass of material by 1) heat, 2) pressure without melting it to the point of liquefaction. Sintering happens naturally in mineral deposits or as part of the manufacturing process used with metals, ceramics, plastics, and other materials.  The study of sintering in metallurgy powder-related processes is known as powder metallurgy. Mechanical alloying is like metal powder processing, where metals may be mixed to produce superalloys. First, the alloy materials are combined in a ball mill and ground to a fine powder. A hot isostatic pressing (HIP) process is then applied to simultaneously compress and sinter the powder. A final heat treatment stage helps remove existing internal stresses produced during any cold compaction. This product is a custom superalloy made for high heat turbine blades and aerospace components.  The sintering welds and electrodes are similar to those employed in field-assisted sintering techniques (FAST) such as spark plasma sintering and single electromagnetic pulse sintering technologies.  This was a predominant science application observed over the entire research duration.
  • Capacity sintering discharge (CDS) banks – Technology based on storage of electromagnetic energy in a high voltage capacitor bank, and discharge into the sintering apparatus at low voltage (<30 V) and high current through step-down transformers on a pre-compacted powder compact which is kept under pressure.
  • Electroslag Welding (ESW) Electroslag welding (ESM) is a highly productive, single-pass welding process for observed materials in a vertical or close to a vertical position as the arc starts in a different location. An electric arc is initially struck by wire that is fed into the desired mold location and then flux is added. Additional flux is added until the molten slag, reaching the tip of the electrode, extinguishes the arc. Weld processes for the alloy sections, a single pass is sufficient for electroslag mold as the process is also very efficient since joint preparation and materials handling is minimized while filler metal utilization is high. The process is also safe and clean, with no arc flash and low weld splatter or distortion. Electroslag molding easily lends itself to mechanization.

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